Medical Modelling, Second Edition: The Application of Advanced Design and Rapid Prototyping Techniques in Medicine (Woodhead Publishing Series in Biomaterials)

Medical modelling and the principles of medical imaging, Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Rapid Prototyping (also known as Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing) are important techniques relating to various disciplines – from biomaterials engineering to surgery. Building on the success of the first edition, Medical Modelling: The application of Advanced Design and Rapid Prototyping techniques in medicine provides readers with a revised edition of the original text, along with key information on innovative imaging techniques, Rapid Prototyping technologies and case studies. Following an overview of medical imaging for Rapid Prototyping, the book goes on to discuss working with medical scan data and techniques for Rapid Prototyping. In this second edition there is an extensive section of peer-reviewed case studies, describing the practical applications of advanced design technologies in surgical, prosthetic, orthotic, dental and research applications. * Covers the steps towards rapid prototyping, from conception (modelling) to manufacture (manufacture)* Includes a comprehensive case studies section on the practical application of computer-aided design (CAD) and rapid prototyping (RP)* Provides an insight into medical imaging for rapid prototyping and working with medical scan data

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3D printed medical marijuana inhaler first of its kind

For the past four years, a design team consisting of mechanical and electrical engineers, physicians, pharmacologists, chemists and biologists have been working together to create the Syqe Inhaler. The inhaler is the brainchild of Syqe Medical Ltd, an Israeli government backed start-up company whose goal is to “transform cannabis and other psychoactive botanicals into mainstream medical drugs.”

Because the use of medical marijuana is still relatively new, information regarding proper dosage amounts remains somewhat unknown. According to a Wall Street Journal report, one of the reasons medical marijuana continues to lack mainstream acceptance is due to doctors being unable to “fine tune” doses and rely instead on “trial and error with cannabis cigarettes, vaporizers and edibles.”

The Syqe medical marijuana inhaler

The Syqe medical marijuana inhaler

Syqe Press Kit

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The inhaler allows physicians to prescribe a controlled dosage of marijuana to patients and gauge the effectiveness of the dose, making adjustments if needed. The initial dosage begins at one milligram, giving both patients and doctors the ability to assess the medicinal benefits without getting the patients high. Syqe Medical CEO, Perry Davidson, told Shalom Life:

“A physician could prescribe a custom-tailored, individualized treatment for [a] patient, and not have a hit or a miss, but a very close hit on the accurate dosing that the patient required.”

The two inhalers developed are the Syqe Inhaler and the Syqe Inhaler Exo. According to a Forbes report, seventy-five percent of the parts in both inhalers were were printed on Stratasys 3D printers. Different materials were used to create various parts of the inhalers in order to ensure “rigidity, clarity, biocompatibility, and heat resistance” according to Davidson. He told Plastics Today:

“Since metered dose inhalation of raw botanicals is a highly unconventional undertaking, we had to develop the tooling and machines for many of our processes. More than half of our production equipment, jigs and analytical tools were printed in house.”

The inhalers are also Wifi enabled, which allows them to be connected to a smart phone or tablet for monitoring. The Syqe Inhaler is designed for in-home use, while the Exo, which contains preloaded cartridges of cannabis granules, is the hospital version of the inhaler. Both inhalers are scheduled to be released in late 2014 to early 2015.

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Melbourne-made 3D-printed body parts could replace cadavers for medical training

A team of medical experts in Melbourne has created a 3D-printed anatomy kit that is set to revolutionise medical training around the world.

The printed body parts which look almost exactly the same as the real thing can be used to replace difficult to get and expensive cadavers that are crucial for training doctors.

On display, the rows of body parts paint a macabre picture – but these hands, feet, brains and hearts are not the real thing – they’re 3D-printed copies.

Professor Paul McMenamin, from Monash University in Melbourne, hopes the anatomy kits will change the future of medical education.

“Not everyone has the luxury of having access to real cadavers specimens because of all the problems of handling cadavers, storing cadavers and using them over and over again for teaching purposes,” Professor McMenamin said.

“So the advantage of this is that the students could sit in any classroom and look at this, it’s a dry powder based print but it’s got all the anatomy that a student would need to learn that particular part of anatomy.”

Professor McMenamin runs the Centre for Human Anatomy Education at the university.

He says the initial process isn’t easy: it requires multiple CT scans of a real body part and then up to 12 hours of printing.

Once that’s done, copies are just a click away.

“If you dropped that and it broke you just order another one and we press print,” Professor McMenamin said.

The printed body parts are falsely coloured to help students distinguish between the different parts of the anatomy including the ligaments, muscles and blood vessels.

The real specimens gradually lose their colour the longer they are kept.

Teaching tool

It’s a huge breakthrough particularly for hospitals in developing countries that can’t afford cadavers and for many Middle Eastern countries where accessing them is difficult due to religious reasons.

“There are exceptions for medical schools in that part of the world and they do allow some dissection to occur in medical schools but it’s not without its problems and cultural difficulties,” Professor McMenamin said.

“Then they’ve got to get people to donate their bodies and it’s that bequest program, how do you get a group of people who religiously believe a body should be not desecrated or touched, to donate their bodies?

“So a lot of these countries don’t have bequest programs, they rely on unclaimed bodies and that creates another ethical debate.”

Yousef Sadeghi is a Professor of Neuroanatomy at the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Iran.

He believes the 3D printed anatomy series will be a vital tool for teachers, particularly in Muslim countries.

“That can be very useful for the teaching of anatomy, especially for the universities in our area, like the Middle East,” Professor Sadeghi said.

“We have a little bit problem with dissecting the human body.”

‘Not everyone wants every part of the body’

The Monash team is hoping to have the 3D-printed anatomy kits available for sale within six to nine months.

Medical schools and hospitals around the world will be able to buy just an arm or a foot, or the entire body in a box.

“Not everyone wants every part of the body, you know if you were running a podiatry school you might just want a collection of feet dissected like this and 3D printed or hand therapists might just want copies of our 3D printed hands,” Professor Paul McMenamin said.

The kits are thought to be the first commercially available resource of its kind.

And Professor McMenamin and his team are not stopping there, they’re already working on a way of using 3-D printing technology to teach surgery.

“The skin would have the compliance of real skin, the muscles would feel like real muscles, the tendons would feel like real tendons and then we could create a surgical training tool which could be used over and over again instead of surgeons having to learn by using real patients,” he said.

And he says the technology is closer than you think.

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